TFFA – TEM TRABALHO APRESENTADO NO CONGRESSO NOS E.U.A

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O TFFA, José Rezende Mendonça, técnico agrícola aposentado da Ceplac, em co-autoria com os fiscais federais em agropecuárias Quintino Araújo e Sandoval Oliveira Santana, do Centro de Pesquisa do Cacau – CEPEC apresentaram no Encontro Internacional anual de 2010 das Sociedades Americanas de Agronomia, Fitotecnia e ciência do solo, ocorrido em Long Beach, na Califórnia, de 31de outubro a 03 de novembro, um trabalho sobre a Caracterização de Solo de Manguezal na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Graciosa, no município de Valença/Bahia.

O trabalho foi apresentado pelo agrônomo Quintino Aráujo, via Poster Virtual, em cuja estratégia os participantes e interessados no trabalho se comunicaram via Skype, para discutir sobre os resultados apresentados.

Para conhecimentos de todos postamos abaixo o conteúdo do trabalho, que evidencia mais uma vez que nossa categoria de técnicos de fiscalização federal agropecuária é capaz de fazer frente em qualquer área agronômico-científica.

O trabalho também pode ser baixado nos LINKS no final deste texto, nas versões: português e inglês.

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Caracterização de Solo de Manguezal na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Graciosa, Valença/Bahia, Brasil.

Quintino R. Araujo1,2

Raquel L. O. Krause2, Sandoval O. Santana1,

Taiana G. Araujo3

José Rezende Mendonça 1

Aldo V. Trindade4

1 Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau / CEPLAC. 2Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil, quintino@cepec.gov.br.  3UFPR – Centro de Estudos do Mar. 4Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária – Mandioca e Fruticultura.

RESUMO

Os solos de manguezais são predominantemente halomórficos e desenvolvidos a partir de sedimentos marinhos e fluviais com presença de matéria orgânica, ocorrendo nas regiões costeiras em topografia plana sob influência constante do mar. Possuem propriedades físicas, químicas e microbiológicas particulares, sendo capazes de transformar, remobilizar e até mesmo fixar diversos compostos químicos de importância ecológica e biogeoquímica para o ecossistema, como também metais pesados que, em altas concentrações, tornam-se tóxicos ao ambiente. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar um solo de manguezal da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Graciosa, região do baixo-sul, Bahia, de acordo com suas propriedades físicas e químicas (incluindo metais pesados), e microbiológicas (presença de bactérias, fungos e micorrizas). Avaliaram-se amostras de 5 camadas de um perfil de 125 cm de profundidade. Numa primeira fase fez-se caracterização do solo em amostras coletadas em 2002, em área ribeirinha desmatada e antropizada. Para a camada superficial C1 (0-20 cm) coletaram-se também amostras de área adjacente e em condições naturais. Secundariamente, fez-se a comparação de análises feitas em amostras da camada superficial, natural e antropizada, considerando-se amostragens de 2002 e 2007. Observaram-se diferenças significativas na profundidade de 0-20, entre as camadas natural e antrópica para as propriedades físicas e químicas com exceção de silte, densidade de partícula, alumínio e fósforo. Para metais pesados, amostrados em 2002, houve diferenças significativas entre as camadas, verificando-se, em geral, níveis baixos em relação àqueles encontrados em solos não contaminados, com exceção do Cd e Pb que se encontraram medianamente elevados. No período entre 2002 e 2007, para as camadas superficiais, natural e antropizada, houve decréscimo nas concentrações de metais, a exceção do Ni. Microorganismos apresentaram maior número na camada natural e, com a segunda maior ocorrência na camada 5 (99-125 cm), levantando a hipótese de que as faixas do perfil mais influenciadas pelas marés altas e baixas, respectivamente camadas C1 e C5, parecem reunir condições de favorecimento às populações microbianas. 

Palavras-chave: Gleissolo; propriedades físico-químicas; microbiologia; metais pesados.

INTRODUÇÃO

O mundo possui áreas estimadas em 162.000 Km2 de manguezais, distribuindo-se ao longo das regiões costeiras tropicais e subtropicais, alcançando a melhor faixa de desenvolvimento entre os trópicos de Câncer e Capricórnio. Na Bahia, apesar dos poucos dados existentes, estima-se que a área seja de aproximadamente 800 km2, ao longo de quase 1.000 Km de costa (RAMOS, 2002). Os maiores bosques estão localizados entre os municípios de Valença e Maraú, e nos municípios de Canavieiras e Caravelas.

Devido ao acúmulo de grandes massas de sedimentos e detritos trazidos pelos rios e mar, há uma expansão constante das áreas de manguezal, sendo áreas pedologicamente instáveis, dinâmicas, devido à constante deposição de areia do mar e rejuvenescimento do solo ribeirinho, com deposições aluviais e lacustres (ROSSI e MATTOS, 2002). Os mecanismos que regem a dinâmica de circulação de sedimentos, em áreas estuarinas, estão diretamente relacionados aos aspectos hidrodinâmicos. A ação das marés oceânicas é variável ao longo das áreas de mangue, pois algumas zonas são inundadas diariamente enquanto outras são atingidas apenas pelas grandes variações de marés (HERZ, 1991). A variação na freqüência de inundação do manguezal pelas marés oceânicas pode acarretar em diferenças na concentração de sal, de sedimentos, nutrientes, metais pesados, etc. As maiores salinidades ocorrem em manguezais próximos ao mar, nos bosques próximos às margens dos rios a concentração de sal é menor (SOARES, 1995).

Geologicamente, esses solos apresentam composições de caulinita, mica, ilita, esmectita na fração argila e feldspatos e quartzo na fração silte. As condições de hidromorfismo não favorecem a ação dos agentes intempéricos sobre o material de origem, devido às más condições de drenagem (ambiente redutor) caracterizando, assim, a presença de minerais primários alteráveis como feldspato potássico e muscovita, com fração silte rica em quartzo e caulinita (AMARAL et al., 1998). De forma geral, estes minerais podem ser originados de forma detrital, trazidos de outros ambientes pela ação hídrica e/ou eólica ou de forma autóctone.

Por vezes os solos de mangue apresentam-se gleizados, com alto teor de sais provenientes da água do mar ou de compostos de enxofre, geralmente não há uma diferenciação de horizontes. Possuem baixas concentrações de cálcio, bases e traços de elementos. As áreas de manguezal que sofrem grande influência das marés oceânicas, recebem diariamente grandes massas de água salgada, tem composição química semelhante à água do mar, sendo dominante o sódio e os cloretos (MARIUS e LUCAS, 1991).

A concentração total dos metais no solo é atribuída ao material de origem, estando presente na composição química do solo como elementos traços; ao processo de formação do solo e a introdução por atividade humana. As principais fontes antropogênicas de metais pesados que se somam as naturais têm sido relacionadas aos efluentes urbanos (principalmente Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn e Ni), a queima de combustíveis fósseis (Cu, Ni, Pb), as indústrias de beneficiamento de ferro e aço (Cr e Zn), fertilizantes (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni e Zn) e depósitos de rejeitos (Zn, Mn e Pb) (RIBEIRO et al., 2006).

Entretanto, como o comportamento de metais pesados em manguezais é altamente dependente das características físico-química de seus sedimentos e como a cobertura vegetal também exerce influência sobre esses aspectos, o tipo de vegetação pode modificar as características dos sedimentos na sua capacidade de retenção de metais pesados. Uma vez que esses metais integram-se aos componentes da paisagem, os sedimentos representam uma ferramenta importante na avaliação do grau de contaminação desses solos, tendo em vista que são representativos dos processos que ocorrem nas bacias de drenagem dos sistemas hídricos em questão.

Parte dos trabalhos em manguezais tem se limitado ao estudo da relação entre a distribuição da vegetação e a nutrição do solo nesse ecossistema. Em relação ao solo, ainda são insuficientes os estudos sobre suas propriedades físicas, químicas e microbiológicas, como também de sua pedologia e edafologia. No estado da Bahia, notavelmente na região do Baixo Sul, essa carência de estudos referentes às zonas estuarinas é bastante considerável. Assim, o estudo e a caracterização dos solos de mangue possibilitam avaliações das relações edáficas e ecológicas desse ecossistema assim como uma melhor definição de estratégias para o manejo sustentável desse ambiente, como também permite o entendimento da auto–regulação e da evolução desse sistema sob intervenção.

Este trabalho teve por objetivos caracterizar um solo de manguezal do Rio da Graciosa, na região de Valença / Taperoá – Bahia, de acordo com suas propriedades físicas, químicas, incluindo metais pesados e microbiológicas – quantificação de fungos, bactérias e micorrizas, bem como investigar as possíveis relações destas propriedades e da presença desses metais com a geologia, hidrologia e localização geográfica. Secundariamente, foram comparadas, em intervalo de 5 anos, alterações edáficas no manguezal verificadas com a regeneração da cobertura vegetal.

MATERIAL E MÉTODOS

ÁREA DE ESTUDO E AMOSTRAGEM

A área estudada localiza-se na desembocadura do Rio Graciosa, limite Valença – Taperoá, região do Recôncavo Sul do Estado da Bahia (13°29’56” S e 39°05’49” W), altitude de 2 metros, relevo plano a suave ondulado. O local da amostragem havia sido desmatado e recebido uma camada de solo de outro local em uma área (aproximada de 20 x 20 m), onde se planejava fazer cultivos. Esta área também recebeu a adição de fertilizante químico em formulação não conhecida pelos residentes usuários entrevistados. As primeiras amostras foram coletadas em trincheira próxima ao rio, em bosque ribeirinho (Figura 1), entre 7 e 9 horas, durante a maré baixa, em novembro de 2002. Coletaram-se amostras simples em triplicatas nas camadas: C1p (0-20 cm; “p” designa camada antropizada), C2 (20-41 cm), C3 (41-65 cm), C4 (65-99 cm), C5 (99-125 cm). Uma sexta amostra da camada de 0-20 cm (denominada C1n) foi coletada em área adjacente, estando o solo em condições naturais. Em maio de 2007, nova amostragem da camada de 0-20 cm foi realizada na área antropizada que, tendo sido abandonada, apresentava um avançado processo de regeneração da vegetação de mangue (Rhizophora mangle L.). As amostras de solo foram analisadas nos laboratórios do Cepec (Bahia) – quanto a propriedades físicas e químicas; na Embrapa Solos (RJ) – para metais pesados; e na Universidade da Flórida (USA) – para análises microbiológicas.

Figura 1. Perfil de solo estudado, em manguezal do estuário do Rio Graciosa – Bahia.

DESCRIÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO PEDOLÓGICA

A descrição do solo no campo foi realizada conforme Lemos e Santos (1996), e para identificação das cores utilizou-se Munsell Color Company (2000). 

ANÁLISE FÍSICA E QUÍMICA

As análises físicas (granulometria, equivalente de umidade, densidade de partícula) e químicas (C, N, pH, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, H, P, totais) do solo seguiram métodos descritos em: Embrapa (1997), Klute (1986), Page et al. (1982) e Yeomans e Bremner (1988).

ANÁLISE DE METAIS PESADOS

As análises de metais pesados (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn e Fe) no solo foram feitas em subamostras de aproximadamente 250 mg de TFSA, trituradas em grãos até chegar a um pó fino e passada em peneira número 100 (145 mm). Foi realizada a extração com água-régia (mistura 3:1 de HCl/HNO3), em bloco digestor, utilizando método descrito por Mcgrath e Cunliffe (1985). As determinações foram feitas por espectrometria, em plasma de acoplamento indutivo.

ANÁLISE DE FUNGOS E BACTÉRIAS

Para análise de fungos usou-se um meio composto de Agar de dextrose de batata – PDA (39 g L-1), Tergitol NP-10 (1ml L-1) e adição, depois de autoclavagem, de Streptomicina (100 mg L-1) e Clortetraciclina – HCl (50 mg L-1) – usando suspensão de água. Amostras de solo (5 g TFSA) foram inoculados em diluição de 10-2. O meio usado para bactérias foi composto de Tryptic-soja (3 g L-1), Agar (12 g L-1), Cyclohexamide (25 mg LV), Agente Anti-espuma (25 mg L-1). O solo (5 g TFSA) foi inoculado em diluição de 10-6. O número de organismos capazes de crescimento no meio específico foi denominado unidades formadoras de colônia (CFU) e calculado por: CFU/g solo = (No. colônias x diluição final) / g solo seco (WOLLUM II, 1982).

ANÁLISE DE MICORRIZAS

Esporos de fungos micorrízicos foram separados por decantamento e peneiramento a úmido, seguido por centrifugação com sacarose de  acordo com o método descrito por Sylvia (1994).

Foram colocadas 25 gramas de solo em um beker de  2 litros cheio de água e 2-3 gotas de sabão líquido. A mistura foi mexida vigorosamente durante 30 segundos, em seguida a areia foi decantada por 10-15 segundos. O sobrenadante foi passado por peneiras nº 18 (1,00 mm) e nº 325 (45 µm). Esporos retidos na peneira fina foram transferidos para tubos de centrífuga de 50 ml, cheios até 2-3 cm do topo com água destilada, e então centrifugados a 1500 rpm por 4 min, decantando-se cuidadosamente o sobrenadante. A matéria orgânica sobrenadante e aderida à parede superior dos tubos foi descartada. Os tubos foram cheios até 2-3 cm do topo com uma solução de sacarose fria 40% e centrifugados a 1500 rpm por 2 min. A centrífuga foi parada para minimizar o tempo de permanência dos esporos na solução de sacarose devido ao dano de potencial osmótico. O sobrenadante foi vertido em peneira de nº 325, para coleta dos esporos, enxaguado-os suavemente com água, e dispondo-os em placa de Petri para observação e quantificação em microscópio composto.

ANÁLISE DOS DADOS

Os dados foram analisados pelo programa estatístico SAEG, aplicando-se o teste de Scott Knott (p< 0,10) para comparação das médias em metais pesados e microbiologia, nas 6 camadas do solo, em 2002; e dos valores médios de física, química e metais pesados na camada de 0-20 cm natural (2002) e antropizada (2002 e 2007).

RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO

CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO GRACIOSA

A Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Graciosa (BHRG) situa-se na região do Baixo Sul da Bahia, abrangendo os municípios de Taperoá e Valença, entre as coordenadas 13° 26’/ 13° 28’ S e 39° 05’/ 39° 09’ W. O clima conforme Thornthwaite é tropical úmido, com índice hídrico maior que 80 %, período chuvoso de janeiro a dezembro (SEI, 1998), apresenta precipitação máxima anual de 2.600 mm e mínima anual de 2.000 mm (SEI, 2003), temperatura máxima de 31,4ºC, média de 25,3°C e mínima de 21,8ºC. A farta pluviosidade, associada à regularidade das precipitações durante o ano, garantem a riqueza dos recursos hídricos da região.

A área de drenagem é de 384,9 km2 (38.491 ha), apresentando padrão do tipo dendrítico. É composta pelos rios: Vermelho e Sarapuí – Mirim a oeste; Graciosa ou do Engenho ao sul; Sarapuí, Cachoerinha, Ajofre e Pau da Légua ao norte (Figura 2). Seus limites geográficos: a leste pelo Oceano Atlântico; ao norte pela BH Rio Una; a oeste pelo Rio Batateira /Piau (afluentes do Una) e ao sul pela Rio Ermitão do Refugo / Camurugi.

Figura 2. Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Graciosa.

Origina-se nas nascentes do riacho Juçara, numa altitude aproximada de 397 m e atinge seu patamar mais baixo na superfície litorânea do município de Taperoá, numa altitude de 8,23 m.     O mapa da Figura 2 descreve atributos dos meios biótico e físico do município de Valença, principal área territorial relacionada com a BHRG, sendo os dados de solo aqueles apresentados em Santana et al. (2004). No levantamento de solos, Santana et al. (2004) caracterizaram o relevo por formações de planícies marinhas e flúvio-marinhas, tabuleiros interiores, tabuleiros pré-litorâneos e serras marginais, destacando-se 3 tipos de formas fisiográficas: Relevo plano (com altitudes que variam de 0 a 100 m);  Relevo ondulado (com altitudes que variam de 100 a 200 m); Forte ondulado (outeiros e morros, apresentando altitudes relativas que variam entre 300 a 400 m). Os solos descritos na região possivelmente apresentam composição de minerais silicatados, cristalinos e amorfos e ainda, óxidos e hidróxidos de alumínio, ferro e titânio.

Dados de levantamentos de campo, obtidos em visitas e entrevistas com produtores e comunidades rurais, populares e residentes de distritos e profissionais da agropecuária que trabalham na área, constatou-se que a BHRG têm grande importância econômica para a região, principalmente para os municípios de Taperoá e Valença, que são banhados pelos rios que a compõem, utilizando suas águas para diversos fins: abastecimento, agricultura/pecuária, pesca, navegação, turismo/lazer. A economia predominante é a agrícola com base produtiva bastante diversificada, sendo comum em torno da bacia o cultivo em Sistemas Agroflorestais (SAFs), destacando-se os cultivos do dendê, cacau, coco, seringueira, mandioca, cravo, guaraná, pimenta-do-reino, urucum, pupunha, mangostão e macadâmia, com pequena utilização de insumos agrícolas (fertilizantes /defensivos). Registraram-se também, atividades pesqueiras e de pecuária, esta última de pouca expressão, pois grande parte das áreas de pasto se encontra degradada. A pecuária, principalmente bovinocultura, é praticada em pastagens consorciadas, em muitos casos, com dendezais.

Clik no mapa para ampliar

Figura 2. Vegetação, Solos, Altimetria e Relevo do município de Valença, Bahia.

CARACTERIZAÇÃO PEDOLÓGICA DO SOLO

O solo estudado foi classificado como Gleissolo Sálico Sódico argissólico, apresentando como aspectos gerais: textura argilo-siltosa; altos teores de matéria orgânica, alta relação C/N; alta CTC e saturação de bases; pH fortemente ácido; alta expansibilidade. O caráter sódico é definido para solos que apresentam em algum horizonte ou camada saturação por sódio (100 Na+ CTC) ≥ 15 % dentro de 100 cm da superfície do solo (EMBRAPA, 2006). Neste caso, o solo apresenta na camada C2 saturação por sódio de 16 % e sais solúveis em água dentro de 100 cm da superfície do solo, que o define como sálico. Na seqüência são apresentados: Descrição do local do perfil; Características morfológicas das camadas do solo; Resultados de análises físicas e químicas (Tabela 1) do Gleissolo estudado.

Descrição do local do perfil

Unidade: Solos de Mangues

Classificação Atual: Gleissolo Sálico Sódico Argissólico

Classificação Anterior: Tropofluvents – Solo indiscriminado de mangue

Localização: Desembocadura do  Rio Graciosa, limite Valença/Taperoá, na BA-001, em barranco.

Altitude: 2 m

Situação: Baixada

Relevo: Plano

Drenagem: Mal drenado.

Material Originário: Sedimentos organo-minerais dos períodos Proterozóico,  Terciário e Quaternário.

Vegetação: Manguezais.

Descrito por: SO Santana e QR Araujo, 29/11/2002.

Características morfológicas das camadas do solo

C1p: 0 – 20 cm – Cinzento esverdeado escuro (2,5 /N – úmido); cinzento esverdeado muito escuro (3/10 GY – molhado); bruno amarelado escuro (10YR 4/6 – úmido), franco argilosa, macio, maciça coerente, ligeiramente plástico e ligeiramente pegajoso, transição ondulado e clara;

C1n: 0 – 20 cm: Preto (n) e preto (2,5N); argila, maciça coerente, macio, lig. plástico e muito pegajoso

C2: 20 – 41 cm; Cinzento esverdeado muito escuro (3/3 GY); cinzento esverdeado escuro (2,5 /N – úmido),franco argilosa, macio, maciça coerente, lig. plástico e  pegajoso, transição ondulada e clara.

C3: 41 – 65 cm; Cinzento esverdeado muito escuro (3/5 GY); franco-argilosa, macio, maciça coerente, ligeiramente plástico e  pegajoso, transição ondulada e clara.

C4: 65 – 99 cm; Cinzento esverdeado escuro (2,5/5G) franco;  macio, maciça coerente que se desfaz em fraca média a grande blocos subangulares, ligeiramente plástico e  pegajoso, transição ondulada e clara.

C5: 99 – 125 cm; Cinzento esverdeado (4/5 G); franco-argilosa; maciça coerente que se desfaz em blocos média e grande; plástico e muito pegajoso.

Tabela 1. Resultados de análises do Gleissolo Sálico Sódico argissólico, em manguezal do estuário da BH Rio Graciosa (SANTANA et al., 2004)

Camada      (cm) Granulometria ADA GF Ds Dp Pt Silte

Argila

Eq. Umid.
AG AF SI AR
(g kg-1) (g kg-1) (%) (g dm 3) (dm3 dm-3) (g kg-1)
C1n 0 – 20

157

198

76 136 336 452 113 75 1,2 2,4 0,5 0,7 106,8
C1p 0 – 20 157 198 311 334 80 76 2,4 0,9
C2 20 – 41 114 169 328 389 75 81 1,0 2,4 0,6 0,8 156,8
C3 41 – 65 74 229 359 339 41 88 1,1 2,5 0,6 1,1 124,3
C4 65 – 99 58 243 365 334 42 87 1,3 2,6 0,5 1,2 105,5
C5 99 – 125 80 293 395 223 38 83 2,6 1,8
Cam. MO C N C/N pH Complexo Sortivo SB T V m
H20 KCl Ca Mg K Na Al H
(g kg-1) (cmolc kg-1) (%)
C1n 117 67,9 4,1 17 5,0 4,7 7,6 16,2 1,2 4,1 0,7 7,7 29,1 37,5 78 2
C1p 96 55,8 4,1 14 4,7 4,2 9,2 17,5 1,2 1,1 1,0 8,7 29,0 38,7 75 3
C2 109 62,9 3,3 19 3,9 3,6 10,0 15,0 0,9 8,2 1,6 16,2 34,1 51,9 66 4
C3 83 47,9 2,1 23 4,2 3,8 10,2 13,5 0,9 3,7 1,0 12,4 28,3 41,7 68 3
C4 76 44,3 1,6 28 4,8 4,4 12,0 12,9 1,2 2,2 0,8 8,5 28,3 37,6 75 3
C5 69 39,7 1,4 28 4,9 4,5 13,0 16,4 1,2 1,1 0,8 7,0 31,6 39,4 80 3
Cam. Ataque com H2SO4 d = 1,47 ( % ) Ki Kr Al2O3

Fe2O3

P
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Ti O2 P2O5 (mg kg-1)
C1n 138 100 42 5,9 2,14 1,70 3,85 10
C1p CC1p

C2

164 130 53 6,8 2,32 1,87 4,20 11
C2 124 91 34 7,0 2,12 1,76 4,89 22
C3 101 81 26 7,4 2,48 1,93 3,49 40
C4 130 89 40 7,8 2,46 1,90 3,41 14
C5 126 87 40 7,6 2,35 1,85 3,74 11
C1n = camada natural; C1p = camada antropizada; AG = areia grossa (1-0,2 mm); AF = Areia fina (0,2-0,05 mm); SI = Silte (0,05-0,002 mm); AR = Argila (< 0,002 mm); ADA = Argila dispersa em água;  GF = Grau de Floculação; Ds = Densidade do solo; Dp = Densidade da partícula; Pt  = Porosidade total estimada ; Eq. Umid. = Umidade Equivalente.  M.O = Matéria Orgânica; C = Carbono Orgânico; N = Nitrogênio; C/N = Relação carbono/nitrogênio; SB = Soma de Bases; T = CTC (capacidade de Troca Catiônica): Ca + Mg + K + Na + H + Al;; V = Saturação por bases; m = Saturação por alumínio; Ki = Relação molecular Sílica / Alumina; Kr = Relação molecular Sílica / Alumina + Óxido Férrico; P = Fósforo disponível.

ANÁLISES FÍSICAS

A partir dos dados de análise física obtidos em 2002, ano da primeira amostragem (Tabela 1) verifica-se que no aspecto granulometria, o solo estudado apresenta predomínio das frações mais finas (argila, silte). As maiores concentrações de argila ocorreram nas camadas mais superficiais (C1n ,C1p ,C2 ) e as concentrações de silte nas camadas mais profundas (C3,C4, C5), comportamento também observado por Firme (2003), o que pode indicar uma mudança do regime de sedimentação no manguezal, com uma menor energia de transporte na deposição dos sedimentos nas camadas mais recentes.

Tabela 2. Análises Físicas obtida do Gleissolo Sálico Sódico argissólico em manguezal do estuário do Rio Graciosa, BA, na camada de 0-20 cm (natural C1n e antropizada C1p), em um intervalo de cinco anos

Camada / Ano Areia grossa Areia

fina

Silte Argila Total Argila Natural

Silte

Argila

Grau

Flocul.

Umid.

Equiv.

Dp
g kg-1 % g kg-1 g cm-3
C1n 2002 76,0 b 136,0 b 336,0 a 452,0 a 113,0 a 0,7 b 75,0 b 106,8 a 2,4 a
C1p 2002 157,0 a 198,0 a 311,0 a 334,0 c 80,0 b 0,9 a 76,0 b ND * b 2,4 a
C1p 2007 87,0 b 192,0 a 307,0 a 413,0 b 74,0 c 0,7 b 82,0 a 68,9 a 2,7 a

Médias seguidas pela mesma letra não diferem entre si pelo teste Scott Knott a 10 %

* ND – não determinado.

A alta relação silte/argila observada (Tabela 1) sugere que o material siltoso depositado na planície aluvionar encontra-se em estágio inicial de intemperismo, o que ocorreu provavelmente devido à idade recente do material de origem (sedimentos do holoceno), pois, como sugerido por Embrapa (1999), quanto menor o valor da relação silte/argila mais intemperizado é o solo.

As variações de tonalidade (caracterização pedológica) segundo Embrapa (2006), explicam-se pela maior concentração de matéria orgânica nas camadas mais superficiais do que nas profundas e devido às transformações nas condições redox (Fe, Mn), de oxidantes a redutoras, devido ao ambiente encharcado e anaeróbio.

Pelos dados da Tabela 2, com médias obtidas para a camada de 0-20 cm, em intervalo de 5 anos, foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as camadas para os todos os atributos físicos, com exceção do silte e densidade da partícula, que não diferiram, sugerindo que o manguezal em estudo tem deposição predominante de sedimentos de frações mais finas. A queda na umidade em maio de 2007 reflete uma diminuição das chuvas na região, correspondendo, de acordo com produtores rurais da região, ao período menos chuvoso. A intervenção humana provocou perda de argila e o pousio da área, por cinco anos, indicou um acúmulo desta fração granulométrica.

ANÁLISES QUÍMICAS

Os elevados teores de matéria orgânica – MO (Tabela 1) verificada em todas as camadas, e principalmente nas camadas superficiais (C1n, C2) indicam que a área de mangue estudada apresenta-se bem conservada vegetativamente, e que a intervenção humana causou a perda de MO na camada antropizada (C1p). As condições dos solos de mangue, em geral relacionados ao pH, encharcamento, compostos sulfurosos, tendem a apresentar um acúmulo de MO como discutido por Cintrón e Schaeffer-Novelli (1983). A alta relação C/N maior que a média 10:1 demonstra um solo com matéria orgânica pouco humificada. Este resultado provavelmente pode ser explicado pela acidez do solo e pelo fato das regiões de manguezal sujeitas às marés, apresentarem maiores aportes de matéria orgânica comparada às áreas sem esta influência.

Tabela 3. Análises Químicas obtida para o Gleissolo Sálico Sódico Argissólico em manguezal do estuário do Rio Graciosa, BA, na camada de 0-20 cm (natural C1n e antropizada C1p), em um intervalo de cinco anos

Camada / Ano pH Ca
Mg
K Na Al H P C N
H2O cmolc dm3 mg dm3 g dm3
C1n 2002 5,0 a 7,6 b 16,2 a 1,2 a 4,1 b 0,7 a 7,7 a 10,0 a 67,9 a 4,1 a
C1p 2002 4,7 a 9,2 a 17,5 a 1,2 a 1,1 c 1,0 a 8,7 a 11,0 a 55,8 b 4,1 a
C1p 2007 4,0 b 3,3 c 4,9 b 0,5 b 10,5 a 0,7 a 5,1 b 8,0 a 20,5 c 0,9 b

Médias seguidas pela mesma letra não diferem entre si pelo teste Scott Knott a 10 %

A geologia da área da BHRG ressalta, dentre outras, a presença de litologia com predomínio de associações de gnaisses enderbíticos e piriclasitos, gnaisses charnockíticos e gnaisses quartzo-feldspáticos, associação litológica denominada “rochas granulíticas intermediárias a básicas” (RADAMBRASIL, 1981). São principais elementos oriundos destas rochas: TiO2, FeO, MgO, K, Ca, Al, Na, Si, Mn.

Os valores de pH observados (3,9 a 5,0) foram também encontrados por Lamberti (1969) em solos de mangue da Guiana Francesa; estes resultados caracterizam o solo como fortemente ácido, sendo os altos teores de H e Al e possivelmente presença de ácidos fúlvicos (ligado a qualidade da matéria orgânica) indutores dessa acidez.

Em relação ao complexo sortivo, o solo apresenta similaridades entre as camadas como alta CTC, devido à grande quantidade de matéria orgânica e dominância dos cátions Mg e Ca seguidos de Na e K, característica que confere ao solo o caráter eutrófico. Os elevados teores de bases trocáveis, especialmente de Mg, é reflexo da influência da água do mar, sendo essa concentração mais elevada de acordo com a localização no estuário (GAMERO et al., 2004; GOMES, 2002; ROSSI e MATTOS, 2002). Há também influência das marés fluviais, carreando bases em suspensão provenientes de solos e corpos hídricos a montante do manguezal. Pode-se observar um decréscimo na salinidade em profundidade, considerando a maior influência da cunha salina durante a maré cheia nas camadas mais superficiais, como ocorre para camada (C2). Segundo Marius e Lucas (1991) esse processo faz com que o solo apresente caráter sódico definido pela fórmula 100Na+ /T ≥ 15% (EMBRAPA, 2006).

Do ponto de vista químico, o solo estudado apresentou alta fertilidade natural, evidenciada pelos teores normalmente altos de soma de bases (SB), com destaque para Mg e Ca, alta capacidade de troca de cátions (T), alta saturação de bases (V), devido provavelmente a baixa acidez trocável. Os altos valores de T podem estar relacionados com a presença de minerais filossilicatados do tipo 2:1, como evidenciado pela alta relação Ki do solo, conferindo alta atividade a fração argila como sugere Embrapa (2006).

As altas concentrações de fósforo, principalmente nas camadas mais profundas (C3, C4), devem-se possivelmente à maior concentração deste elemento na época da sedimentação (proveniente da rocha matriz ou de outros solos), ou da migração do nutriente entre as camadas.

Na comparação das médias, para a camada 0-20 cm (Tabela 3), o período de 5 anos de pousio, com regeneração avançada mas parcial da vegetação, notou-se a diminuição ou tendência à diminuição para pH, Ca, Mg, K, H, C e N.  O cátion Na obteve acréscimo significativo provavelmente pela maior influência da cunha salina na camada antrópica no ano de 2007. Apenas Al e P mantiveram-se inalterados, devido possivelmente ao aporte ser atribuído ao material de origem. Este período de cinco anos não foi suficiente para a recuperação do C orgânico, cuja diminuição pode também estar associada, no local do estudo, a ocorrência de condições hidrodinâmicas propícias para a deposição da matéria orgânica no manguezal, como discutido por Araujo et al. (1995).

METAIS PESADOS

Coimbra (2003) sugere que a concentração de metais pesados depende, entre outros fatores, do material de origem e do processo de formação do solo. As reações que controlam a disponibilidade de metais pesados nos solos de manguezal compreendem adsorção e dessorção, precipitação, dissolução e complexação que são influenciados por diferentes atributos químicos, como atividade da fração argila e teor de carbono orgânico, sendo o pH e o potencial redox os mais relevantes, pois controlam a especiação química dos metais na solução do solo.

Os teores de metais pesados apresentam-se baixos (Tabela 4 e 5) em relação aos níveis geralmente encontrado em solos não contaminados: Fe < 38,00 mg kg-1, Cu < 60 mg kg-1, Mn < 600 mg kg-1, Zn < 50 mg kg-1, Cr 100 mg kg-1, Cd < 0,06 mg kg-1, Ni 13 mg kg-1, Pb < 20 mg kg-1 (RAIJ, 1991), com exceção do Cd e Pb, que se encontram medianamente elevados. Entre as camada ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os metais (Tabela 4 e 5). Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Co e Cd seguiram uma tendência de acréscimos em profundidade, atribuídos provavelmente ao material de origem do solo, fato comprovado pelas maiores concentrações encontradas nas camadas mais profundas, próximas a rocha matriz, com exceção do Cr, que se comportou de forma variável entre as profundidades e obteve a concentração mais elevada na camada antrópica, o que pode ser atribuído às entradas junto ao material depositado e ao uso de fertilizantes. Outra hipótese levantada seria o depósito e acúmulo desses metais devido à estagnação de água fluvial durante maré vazante (Figura 3) nas camadas mais profundas, o que contribui para o fornecimento de pequenas concentrações desses metais a horizontes do perfil, provenientes de solos / material litológico e corpos hídricos a montante.

Tabela 4. Teores de Metais Pesados obtidos para o Gleissolo Sálico Sódico Argissólico em manguezal do estuário do Rio Graciosa, BA, em 2002

Camada Prof.

(cm)

Fe Cu Mn Zn Cr Co Ni Cd Pb
mg kg-1
C1n 0-20 18,5 f 6,1 b 85,1 d 25,9 c 35,9 e 4,5 c * b 1,5 e * c
C1p 0-20 24,8 e 7,7 a 71,5 e 9,4 d 60,2 a 6,9 a 7,0 a 1,9 d 11,6 a
C2 20-41 28,1 d 5,2 b 99,7 c 34,8 b 46,4 c 6,2 b * b 2,2 c 7,5 b
C3 41-65 29,6 c 3,4 c 176,7 b 44,3 a 44,0 d 6,4 b * b 2,5 b * c
C4 65-99 34,4 a 1,4 d 199,0 a 45,0 a 51,8 b 7,0 a * b 2,8 a * c
C5 99-125 32,6 b 1,1 d 198,0 a 44,9 a 48,6 c 6,7 a * b 2,8 a * c

Médias seguidas pela mesma letra não diferem entre si pelo teste Scott Knott a 10 %

* teor abaixo do limite de detecção da técnica utilizada.


Figura 3
. Influência das marés na entrada de sedimentos e elementos químicos no Gleissolo Sálico Sódico Argissólico.

As concentrações de Fe são relativamente baixas seguindo uma tendência verificada por Lima (2001). O material de origem pré-intemperizado e as condições pedoclimáticas da região Amazônica foram fatores determinantes para os baixos teores de Fe encontrados por ele. Neste caso possivelmente o material de origem é pobre em Fe e o transporte desse metal em suspensão proveniente de corpos hídricos a montante não é muito eficiente, contribuindo para baixas concentrações desse metal no solo. O hidromorfismo pode ser a causa para as variações de concentrações de Fe que ocorrem na zona intertidal, pois provoca a lixiviação dos óxidos de ferro para as camadas mais profundas, como observado para este solo (Tabela 4). O pouco grau de evolução e seu caráter sálico sódico são características que podem também influenciar perdas de Fe e argilas por ferrólise, a exemplo do descrito por Schaefer e Dalrymple (1996).

As concentrações de Cu seguem uma tendência de redução em profundidade (Tabela 4). Os teores de metais pesados apresentaram concentração mais significativa na camada antrópica (C1p) provavelmente pelo fato da área em estudo ter sido desmatada e possivelmente ter recebido insumos para a implantação de cultivos. Lima (2001) observou esta tendência de decréscimo com a profundidade do metal Cu em Gleissolos da Amazônia Ocidental.

Os teores de Zn revelaram um comportamento bem definido, aumentando com a profundidade do solo e se estabilizando na última camada. Este metal encontra-se no solo, podendo estar relacionado com o material de origem, estando presente em altas concentrações nas rochas magmáticas, como também ser empregado por meio do uso de fertilizantes e combustíveis fósseis como sugerido por Malavolta e Reichardt (1976).

As altas concentrações de Cd (> 0,06 mg kg-1) podem ser atribuídas ao material de origem sedimentar, onde o teor deste metal pode chegar a 10 mg kg-1, como sugerido por Malavolta e Reichardt (1976), resultado que se comprova pelas maiores concentrações desse metal nas camadas mais profundas, próximas a rocha matriz. Em solos próximos a aglomerados urbanos, o resíduo dos pneus e como fontes adicionais, óleo diesel e óleos lubrificantes, podem contribuir para o incremento deste metal no solo.

O Ni e o Pb apresentaram-se abaixo do limite de detecção, sendo observado apenas na camada C1p, antropizada para o Ni e na C1p e C2 para Pb. Esse resultado provavelmente pode ser atribuído a atividade antrópica por meio do uso de fertilizantes fosfatados, que contém grande quantidade desses metais (RAIJ, 1991). Pelo fato do Pb ser um metal pouco móvel ele naturalmente se acumula nas camadas superficiais, como encontrado para este solo, como pode ser visto na Tabela 4.

Adições oriundas de resíduos de óleos combustíveis de embarcações da navegação diária no estuário do Rio Graciosa podem também estar contribuindo para a ocorrência de metais como sugerido por Ribeiro et al. (2006), pois estes possuem em sua composição hidrocarbonetos e metais traço como níquel e cobre.

A comparação entre os resultados obtidos para a camada antrópica em 2002 e 2007 (Tabela 5) mostra que para certos metais (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Pb) houve decréscimo significativo nas concentrações após 5 anos da primeira amostragem. Apesar de o solo apresentar incremento de argila e do grau de floculação neste período (Tabela 2), este fator não influenciou a mobilização de metais no solo como discutido por Förstner e Wittmann (1993) o que sugere a associação de metais preferencialmente às frações finas, de tamanho silte e argila (< 2 μm), os quais compõem os sedimentos de manguezais, sendo esta favorecida pelas reações de adsorção, devido à sua elevada área de superfície específica.

Santos (2006) observou que os metais pesados dos sedimentos de manguezais ocorrem em maior proporção em solos com maior fração areia, devido à forte associação dos minerais desta fração presentes em sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras com os metais. O abandono da área e a rápida regeneração do manguezal (Rhizophora mangle) também podem ter contribuído para este aspecto, devido a esta planta possuir capacidade de mobilizar metais. Somente para Ni houve acréscimo significativo na segunda amostragem, provavelmente por este metal se adsorver fortemente as frações mais finas remanescentes do solo, como observado por Malavolta e Reichardt (1976).

Tabela 5. Teores de Metais Pesados obtidos para o Gleissolo Sálico Sódico Argissólico em manguezal do estuário do Rio Graciosa, BA, na camada de 0-20 cm (natural C1n e antropizada C1p), em um intervalo de cinco anos

Amostra Fe Cu Mn Zn Cr Co Ni Cd Pb
mg kg-1
C1n 2002 18,5 c 6,1 a 85,1 a 25,9 a 35,9 b 4,5 b * c 1,5 b * b
C1p 2002 24,8 a 7,7 a 71,5 b 9,4 b 60,2 a 6,9 a 7,0 b 1,9 a 11,6 a
C1p 2007 22,0 b 5,5 a 52,4 c 7,4 c 15,0 c 3,3 c 11,8 a * c * b

Médias seguidas pela mesma letra não diferem entre si pelo teste Scott Knott a 10 %

* teor abaixo do limite de detecção da técnica utilizada.

ANÁLISES MICROBIOLÓGICAS

A vegetação do mangue, com predomínio de Rizophora mangle, é um dos fatores dentre outros (temperatura, aporte de matéria orgânica e disponibilidade de água e nutrientes) que contribui para controlar a composição e atividades microbianas, determinando suas condições de sobrevivência e crescimento como sugerido por Ovreâs e Torsvik (1998). Esses aspectos podem variar em função do ciclo de maré, das variações climáticas e da atividade da flora e fauna.

Em solos de manguezais que estão constantemente inundados, há maior conectividade entre sítios microbianos, pois a água faz papel de ponte entre os agregados do solo, resultando em maior homogeneidade das estruturas das comunidades microbianas como sugerido por Cury (2002). O pH, tipo de fração mineral, de vegetação, processos biogequímicos, contaminação por metais pesados, profundidade de coleta; todos estes fatores podem influenciar na quantificação de microorganismos de solo.

Na avaliação da presença dos microorganismos, além das abordagens específicas, abaixo anotadas, pode-se também considerar a possibilidade, conforme hipótese apresentada na Figura 3, sobre as deposições de nutrientes e seus compostos nas camadas correspondentes aquelas nas quais o nível das águas se concentra nos intervalos de tempo da maré alta e maré baixa, favorecendo também as populações microbianas adaptadas.

BACTÉRIAS

A quantificação de bactérias no solo revelou diferenças significativas entre as profundidades amostradas, havendo superioridade desses microorganismos na camada C1n (Tabela 6). Isto ocorreu porque nos horizontes superficiais há maior atividade biológica, devido a vários fatores, como grande quantidade de matéria orgânica, a presença de luz e oxigenação, como sugerido por Cury (2006). Contrariamente, na camada C2 observou-se uma queda acentuada, próxima de zero, na população de bactérias, o que pode ser explicado pelo fato desses microorganismos não suportarem pH ácido, salinidade e altas concentrações de Al, como observado na Tabela 1. A umidade do solo e a porosidade (aeração) desta camada são fatores favoráveis para o desenvolvimento da população, mas neste caso, estes fatores não contribuíram positivamente. Na camada C4 observou-se um crescimento acentuado da população, possivelmente explicado devido a vários fatores que juntos contribuíram para isso: a alta relação C/N, pH menos ácido, menores concentrações de Al3+ e altas concentrações de P-3. Os teores de metais pesados existentes no solo não influenciaram o crescimento ou decréscimo da população de bactérias como observado por Yim e Tam (2003). Neste caso possivelmente o pH foi o fator que mais influenciou negativamente a população de bactérias.

Tabela 6. Quantificação de microrganismos (bactérias, fungos e micorrizas) em 6 camadas do   Gleissolo em manguezal do estuário do Rio Graciosa, BA

Camada Prof.

(cm)

Bactéria Fungos Micorrizas
CFU g soil-1 x 10 6 CFU g soil-1 x 10 2 Nº Esporos/100 g solo-1
C1n 0-20 7,3 a 653,3 a 113,0 a
C1p 0-20 6,2 d 93,3 c 19,0 d
C2 20-41 * f 27,0 d 42,0 c
C3 41-65 5,5 e 7,0 e 12,0 e
C4 65-99 6,8 b 46,7 d 12,0 e
C5 99-125 6,5 c 419,7 b 54,0 b

CFU = Unidades Formadoras de Colônias

Médias seguidas pela mesma letra não diferem entre si pelo teste Scott Knott a 10 %

* teor abaixo do limite de detecção da técnica utilizada.

FUNGOS

Foram observadas diferenças significativas para fungos entre as camadas (Tabela 6). A alta população observada nas camadas C1n e C5 podem ser explicadas principalmente pelo caráter ácido destas, pois fungos de solo se desenvolvem melhor em condições de acidez, onde sofrem menor competição com bactérias (BRANDÃO, 1992), fato parcialmente comprovado no estudo, com a população de fungos se desenvolvendo melhor nas camadas onde a população de bactérias estava reduzida, exceto na camada superficial (0-20 cm). O fator pH para os fungos influenciou de forma positiva o desenvolvimento da população, como também o meio anaeróbio, apesar deste ser um fator inibidor de algumas populações como sugerido por Brandão (1992); neste caso houve um processo antagônico.

MICORRIZAS

O número de esporos de micorrizas variou entre as camadas do perfil de solo estudado, com as maiores populações ocorrendo na camada natural, C1n (Tabela 6). A alta concentração de matéria orgânica; carbono; nitrogênio; maior luminosidade; melhor aeração; pH favorável; baixa concentração de Na e Al foram aspectos que favoreceram o melhor desenvolvimento desses fungos nessa camada, como discutido por Silveira (1992). O fator encharcamento, negativo conforme Silveira (1992), neste caso não influenciou fortemente a população, que obteve bom desenvolvimento na C5 que permanece por longo período inundada.

CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS

As condições física e química do Gleissolo de mangue estudado são influenciadas pelo regime de marés oceânicas e fluviais, devido a sua localização estuarina, e provavelmente também pela geologia da bacia hidrográfica correspondente. O solo revelou altos índices de fertilidade (soma de bases, capacidade de troca catiônica, fósforo, matéria orgânica). Com a intervenção antrópica, observou-se queda nos valores de argila e carbono orgânico.

Apesar da alta fertilidade, com saturação de bases acima de 50% em todas as camadas / hipereutrofismo, o Gleissolo de manguezal apresenta restrições de manejo, adequando-se às espécies que se adaptam aos elevados índices salinos / sódicos (a exemplo de mangue vermelho – Rhizophora sp e siriba – Avicenia sp), enquadrando-se na classe VIII de capacidade de uso – Terras sem aptidão para uso agrícola.

A proximidade de pequenos aglomerados urbanos e as atividades humanas no local e a montante (efluentes urbanos, combustíveis fósseis, fertilizantes), não causaram contaminação por metais pesados (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co) na área, o que implica em um solo ainda conservado quanto a este aspecto. O Cd e o Pb, devido as suas concentrações medianamente elevadas, devem ser objetos de estudos posteriores para uma melhor análise das fontes de fornecimento e das prováveis conseqüências de seus teores no ecossistema estudado.

As populações de microorganismos (bactérias, fungos, micorrizas) foram maiores na camada natural e menor em camadas intermediárias. A presença de matéria orgânica, nutrientes e níveis de acidez foram fatores que provavelmente influenciaram esses resultados.

Os resultados observados representam importante base científica para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas referentes aos manguezais na região, principalmente quanto à caracterização dos solos.

REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

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  189. I’ll gear this review to 2 types of people: current Zune owners who are considering an upgrade, and people trying to decide between a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players worth considering out there, like the Sony Walkman X, but I hope this gives you enough info to make an informed decision of the Zune vs players other than the iPod line as well.)

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  193. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  194. With havin so much written content do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright violation? My blog has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my agreement. Do you know any ways to help prevent content from being ripped off? I’d definitely appreciate it.

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  198. Between me and my husband we’ve owned more MP3 players over the years than I can count, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the last few years I’ve settled down to one line of players. Why? Because I was happy to discover how well-designed and fun to use the underappreciated (and widely mocked) Zunes are.

  199. This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like ‘Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.

  200. One thing is one of the most popular incentives for making use of your credit cards is a cash-back or even rebate present. Generally, you’ll have access to 1-5% back upon various purchases. Depending on the credit cards, you may get 1% again on most acquisitions, and 5% back on expenses made from convenience stores, gas stations, grocery stores plus ‘member merchants’.

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  203. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

  204. If you’re still on the fence: grab your favorite earphones, head down to a Best Buy and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and see which one sounds better to you, and which interface makes you smile more. Then you’ll know which is right for you.

  205. Sorry for the huge review, but I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this, as well as the excellent reviews some other people have written, will help you decide if it’s the right choice for you.

  206. Hands down, Apple’s app store wins by a mile. It’s a huge selection of all sorts of apps vs a rather sad selection of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has plans, especially in the realm of games, but I’m not sure I’d want to bet on the future if this aspect is important to you. The iPod is a much better choice in that case.

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